Zeno's proof that the Universe employs reason
Zeno, the father of Stoicism, was quoted by Cicero and Sextus Empiricus, on a proof he gave to establish that the Universe employs reason.
Zeno’s proof as quoted by Cicero in De Natura Deorum (II, 20)
What employs reason is better than what does not
But nothing is better than the Universe
Therefore the Universe employs reason.
equivocation by GhiOm
I would say there is an ambiguity in the term better, which is not properly defined.
The term better has to be defined in terms of measure. What is preferred has to be measurable, or else it is not an objective argument.
In the first premise, better is taken in a very narrow definition, while comparing rational capacity of beings, where reason is preferred to no reason.
In the second premise, better is not in regard of a measure of anything but a property of the Universe.
subverted_support by John B. Brown
There is an unspoken assumption that there exists a teleologic end to the universe and to beings in general—that a rational being is closer to achieving its end than a non rational being. This assumption of an end, or purpose, could also be seen as the error of “Subverted Support” in which the phenomena being explained does not exist. In this case, that phenomena is the “end” or “purpose” of being.